Paolo Freire’s concept of transformative action (from his book Pedagogy of the Oppressed, 1970) suggests that action, reflection, learning and dialogue together with others (kanohi ki te kanohi) develops a critical consciousness capable of understanding structures of power and recognising social and political contradictions. 

This diagram by Graham Hingangaroa Smith re-imagines this concept as non-linear, where all components occur simultaneously and continuously over time. It has been copied from the original source by the artist’s son Louie (b. 2013), in exchange for $20 worth of Pokémon trading cards from TradeMe. 

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